From 1802 to 1945 AD, the city of
was the political capital and
one of the cultural, religious and learning centers of
The city's many historical monuments, such as the
Citadel, are silent witnesses of this glorious past (fig.).
Citadel consists of a large, walled area on the North
side of the Perfume River. Within its walls is the
Imperial City which in turn encloses the Forbidden
Purple City, and which is modeled along the lines of the
Forbidden City in Beijing
It likewise was once reserved for
the emperors of the Nguyen Dynasty, their
concubines, and those close enough to be granted access,
the punishment for trespassing being death.